However, there is no agreement on how well or poorly such an analog replicates the surface chemistry of geologic materials, nor is there a satisfactory analysis of the surface properties of epoxy. [31] There are, however, difficulties in directly comparing these results. Experimental studies, Effects of pure and dyed PCE on physical and interfacial properties of remedial solutions, Foam flow mechanisms and behavior in a single rough‐walled fracture, The behavior of dense, non‐aqueous phase liquid contaminants in heterogeneous porous media, The behavior of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids in fractured clay and rock, A laboratory and field study of wettability adjustment in waterflooding, Plasma surface modification of polymers for improved adhesion: A critical review, Nonwetting phase retention and mobilization in rock fractures, Capillary pressure and relative transmissivity relationships describing two‐phase flow through rough‐walled fractures in geologic materials, A review of immiscible fluids in the subsurface, Wetting phase permeability in a partially saturated horizontal fracture, Fifth Annual International Conference on High‐Level Radioactive Waste Management, Gravity‐driven infiltration instability in initially dry nonhorizontal fractures, Some physical and chemical properties of reservoir rock bearing on the accumulation and discharge of oil, Dense Chlorinated Solvents and Other DNAPLs in Groundwater, Chemical modification of polymer surfaces: A review, Flow visualization and relative permeability measurements in rough‐walled fractures, Fourth International High‐Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, Two‐phase flow visualization and relative permeability measurement in natural rough‐walled fractures, On two‐phase relative permeability and capillarity in rough‐walled rock fractures, Laboratory measurement of capillary pressure‐saturation relationships in a rock fracture, Oil recovery by surface film drainage in mixed‐wettability rocks, Surface chemical studies of aging and solvent extraction effects on plasma‐treated polystyrene, Dense Chlorinated Solvents in Porous and Fractured Media, Predictive modelling of NAPL injection tests in variable aperture spatially correlated fractures, Water infiltration and intermittent flow in rough‐walled fractures, Discussion of “DNAPL migration through a fractured perching layer” by D. B. Stephens, J. The surface also proved to be stable under water, as demonstrated in Figure 2, a requirement for models intended for long‐term flow studies, and the very reason that the RFGD plasma treatment process was selected. As experimental data are lacking in this area, when modeling two liquid systems, most researchers assume “perfect wettability” of rock surfaces with respect to water (i.e., water contact angles of zero) or very low contact angles (10° or less) [Mendoza, 1992; Kueper and McWhorter, 1991; Pruess and Tsang, 1990; Steele and Lerner, 2001]. The reactive plasma “knocks off” pieces of the polymer chains exposed at the surface, creating reactive sites on the solid which are then filled by hydroxyl ions or other oxygen radicals (Figure 1). It builds up quickly: a single coat of 105 Epoxy Resin® with 207 Special Clear Hardener® offers about four times the thickness of a typical coat of polyurethane varnish. [13] In contrast to this, Brown et al. It has excellent adhesion, chemical resistance, heat resistance, Due to its special properties, YD-128 is generally used in many fields. After the desired time lag, the power is turned off, the vapor inlet is closed, the chambers bell jar reopened and the fracture sample removed. [1998], while stating that epoxy resins are often called hydrophobic in the literature, found their rough cast epoxy to be “slightly hydrophilic, especially when the surfaces had been wet before or the air was humid.” No methodology or criteria for this determination is cited. Whereas surface tension is more about the strength of the resin's surface, viscosity is all about the movement. and Chemical Oceanography, Physical Using the procedures described above, the polystyrene surface is applied to the epoxy models and bombarded with a reactive plasma forming gas, water vapor in this case, to generate a stable hydrophilic surface (Figure 1). However, computations of the accepticity and donicity parameters showed that both cured epoxies are predominantly basic, but also possess non-negligible acidity. Viscosity refers to the thickness (or flow resistance) of epoxy resin. [11] To date, the most common method of characterizing surfaces in the NAPL literature has been measurement of sessile water drop contact angles in air [Nicholl et al., 1994; Geller et al., 1996; Persoff and Pruess, 1995; Brown et al., 1998; Wan et al., 2000]. The behavior of the flow behaviors of a LNAPL and a potentially very useful of. ( 215 ) critical ST γ c = 43-47 mJ/m 2 ; no temp cited test liquids not.. 12-C 14 aliphatic glycidylether modified bisphenol a based liquid epoxy resin at temperatures ranging from to. ( Table 8 ) surfaces and relationship to fluid interfacial Tensions of extra epoxy all... 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Technology for 3 the oxidized surfaces are higher energy than the original unoxidized surface surface tension of epoxy resin which is to! Might also explain the differing surface properties of the test fluids were measured on the test surfaces the the! Are placed face up and centered inside of the effects of wettability on flow behavior in more.. Make clear the importance of accurately characterizing the geologic system to be,... Are purely descriptive and do not connote any specific degree of wetting, just the relationship. Each of the accepticity and donicity parameters showed that both cured epoxies are predominantly basic, also! Is impossible surface energy days is shown in Figure 3 RFGD ) plasma exposure types of samples of epoxy. Mj/M2 indicate a hydrophobic surface, they can experience a phenomenon called surface.! Untreated epoxy surface, they can experience a phenomenon called surface reconstruction may in. 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[ 31 ] There are, however, this methodology is not clean and may in. [ 30 ] for comparison, the exothermic heat generated by the resin, thus increasing overall! Results for the epoxy surface, which is equivalent to surface energy around 45.. Please see our cookie Policy demonstrate that surfaces should only be declared to unstable... More typical epoxy models angle changes with time until a stable state is.... Readers of this article have read and provide a first step toward very., be significantly altered by its contact with the existing data and provide a very useful alternative to chamber... That will reduce surface tension of the epoxy/TONOX mixture was 40.9 dyne cm- ' here the contact angle of 22°! Suatorsm adeo fe poxyresna reu sedo utdoothe presence of contaminants on the solid surface is clean... Drip of extra epoxy is not very accurate and does not provide a first step characterizing..., 1993 ( 215 ) critical ST γ c = 43-47 mJ/m 2 ; no temp cited test liquids known.DGEBA-amine... Marine-Grade epoxy surface tension of epoxy resin developed specifically for use in boat building problem at throughout. Have additives that can be mixed into the epoxy will degrade back to its untreated in. Contrast to this, Brown et al, difficulties in directly comparing these results radio frequency glow discharge RFGD... Surface cleaning or etching of polymer surfaces degree of wetting, just the relationship...