The University of Maryland has top-ranked programs in computer science, physics, applied mathematics, and other related areas. No ‘(quantum information) theory’, but rather ‘quantum (information theory)’. The Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science is a partnership between the University of Maryland and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Physical neutrality of information. Quantum computers could be game changers, enabling more realistic modeling on a practical timescale. These are among the most difficult simulations done currently on classical computers. Most information is stored in relatively large structures--books, text messages, DNA, computers. For hundreds of years, our understanding of the properties of matter and energy were based on mathematical equations formulated by Newton, Gauss, Maxwell and others by observing nature. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shpsb.2016.10.001. Only one kind of information ecoded by orthogonal or non-orthogonal states. What Is Quantum Information Science? With partners on campus, in the Joint Quantum Institute and the Quantum Engineering Center, and off-campus, at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Laboratory for Telecommunication Sciences, the Laboratory for Physical Sciences, and other government and industrial organizations, QuICS is uniquely positioned to bring the best minds together to explore the frontiers of quantum information science. Such simulations could have broad impact, for example, on drug design, sustainable power generation, and development of new materials. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Cryptography, which allows us to maintain secrecy in messages containing sensitive information such as financial or health data, is based on requiring anyone other than an authorized person to perform a very difficult computation in order to steal the information. Quantum sensing. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. First, it dissolves the widely discussed puzzles of teleportation without the need to assume a particular interpretation of information. from a conceptual viewpoint. One of the immediate applications of quantum devices will be in modeling nature by computing the properties and behavior of chemical systems and physical devices at the quantum level. Quantum information science is an area of study about information science related to quantum effects in physics. states of multipartite systems can be “entangled,” exhibiting correlations that are stronger than classical theory allows. QuICS receives substantial administrative and technical support from the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. Furthermore, the mathematical concept of information in the communicational context, and the notion of pragmatic information are considered. No quantum information as qualitatively different than classical information. The view that, in the communicational context, there is only one kind of information, physically neutral, which can be encoded by means of classical or quantum states has, in turn, interesting conceptual advantages. Quantum Information: a collection of different bits of information which each describe a particular state of a system. It includes theoretical issues in computational models as well as more experimental topics in quantum physics including what can and cannot be done with quantum information. Because of the principle of superposition, qubits, unlike the “classical bits” in your computer, can be in both their possible states at once. In the 20th century, as we began to observe nature on atomic and subatomic scales, it became clear that the classical model was not sufficient to predict properties at small distances. In the present article we address the question 'What is quantum information?' Quantum information systems hold out the possibility of extremely secure encryption—a major attraction in an age where cybersecurity is constantly at risk. This requires a completely different way of thinking about how to solve problems with computers, and especially about how hard some problems are to solve. It is believed that sensors based on quantum effects could be exquisitely sensitive and could aid in understanding everything from biological systems to the nature of dark matter. This behavior allows a system such as a magnet, which has two classical directions of polarization (say “up” or “down”), to be in a quantum superposition of states, simultaneously polarized both “up” and “down.”. Quantum computers rely on qubits as their basic unit of information. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Our current notions of difficulty are based on the classical model. Concepts addressed include entanglement of quantum states, the relation of quantum correlations to quantum information, and the meaning of the informational approach for the foundations of quantum mechanics. This opens up exciting new possibilities in i… National Institute of Standards and Technology, Laboratory for Telecommunication Sciences, University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, The classical model can describe systems of particles or waves, but these are distinct phenomena. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. As opposed to conventional binary computers, which operate in units of information represented by 1s or 0s, qubits can exist as a “1” and “0” at the same time. Quantum information is information stored in very small structures called qubits. Finally, in the light of the idea of the physical neutrality of information, the wide field of research about classical models for quantum information acquires a particular conceptual and philosophical interest. These laws provide a useful model of motion, force, heat, electricity, and magnetism, and enabled us to build engines, power generators, computers, and communication devices. The term quantum information theory is also used, but it fails to encompass experimental research in the area and can be confused with a subfield of quantum information science that studies the processing of quantum infor… Instead, a quantum model was necessary, introducing implausible features that were eventually verified in nature: In the 20th century, we used the quantum model to design new technologies, such as the transistor and the laser, that radically changed our lives. The mission of QuICS is to understand the consequences of representing and processing information quantum mechanically. For hundreds of years, our understanding of the properties of matter and energy were based on mathematical equations formulated by Newton, Gauss, Maxwell and others by observing nature. A key reason to build a center on quantum information and computer science as part of an institute for computer studies is to better connect physicists, focused on how to build quantum devices, with computer scientists, asking how the devices can be used to solve problems. Now, in the 21st century, we are beginning to exploit quantum properties to build new computers and new communication devices. Those who adopt this characterization of quantum information in general stress the … Qubits can be made from any quantum system that has two states. In the quantum model, matter exhibits properties of both waves and particles. In the image in the poster, these states are depicted as electron orbits in an atom. No ‘ (quantum information) theory’, but rather ‘quantum (information theory)’. Second, and from a more general viewpoint, it frees the attempts to reconstruct quantum mechanics on the basis of informational constraints from any risk of circularity; furthermore, it endows them with a strong conceptual appealing and, derivatively, opens the way to the possibility of a non-reductive unification of physics. A usual claim is that quantum information is what is produced by a quantum information source, that is, a device that generates different quantum states with their corresponding probabilities (see, e.g., Timpson (2004), Timpson (2008), Töppel, Aiello, Marquardt, Giacobino, & Leuchs (2014), Duwell, 2008). In the quantum world, many computations that are classically difficult are in fact easy. These are deep questions with practical significance. Only one kind of information ecoded by orthogonal or non-orthogonal states. In particular, we argue that there seems to be no sufficiently good reasons to accept that quantum information is qualitatively different from classical information. No quantum information as qualitatively different than classical information.