They are fields structured by two conflicting demands: autonomy of expertise and dependence on clients. The Introduction to the Work of Marcel Mauss refers a number of times to works by Mauss collected 'in this volume'. Drawing on Mauss's classical essay on “The Gift,” the authors examine the relationship between Western development nongovernmental organizations and their Southern counterparts. Whereas the market and welfare state are compatible with the modernity project, the Gift is argued to be incompatible with them whilst still pervasive in human affairs. According to Mauss 'The unreciprocated gift still makes the person who has accepted it inferior, particularly when it has been accepted with no thought of returning it' [37]. : Voice in the International Disability Rights Movement, The gift of health: Cuba’s development assistance in the Pacific, Culture in international development: the role of Concerts Norway in the India-Norway music cooperation (2002–2017), Game of Translations: Virtual Community doing English Translations of Chinese Online Fiction, Conceptualising corporate community development, Equivalence and value in processes of reciprocity and exchange between Mapuche people, The Economic Illusions That Hold Back Human Development, Helping People Help Themselves: From the World Bank to an Alternative Philosophy of Development Assistance. By comparing the source and target texts, the paper reveals that in many of Pu Songling’s stories, spirit-freelove and sexual pleasure are celebrated. Using qualitative data drawn from fieldwork with grassroots disability associations in Northern Nicaragua, this article shows that international and national organizations have utilized a number of methods, including providing advocacy training, establishing new organizations, and formalizing reporting procedures, to bring DPOs together around a human rights advocacy agenda. Using ethnographic methods and document analysis, it finds that Concerts Norway successively shifted from rational, via entrepreneurial to relational brokerage, adapting the programme and development communication to shifting Ministry of Foreign Affairs policies and the Indian partner's needs. The literature also indicated that these four attributes, and especially reciprocity, can have an empowering effect on healthcare professionals. It is argued that what starts out as a seemingly free gift is transformed into a heavily conditional gift when it reaches the ultimate recipient. Fan translations are an important part of global fan subculture activity, intensified especially through the new media platforms which connect producers and consumers all around the globe. This paper addresses this gap, drawing on Maussian gift theory to argue that the Cuban ‘gift of health’ provides much needed capacity in health while building the dignity of both partners. Moreover, Cuba’s medical cooperation is grounded in an ethics of solidarity and offers a clear example of social justice-oriented south-south cooperation which aims to both address immediate humanitarian need and to transform power structures that limit the accessibility and availability of sustainable health care within partner countries. Translation studies in English and Chinese has long been of great interest to academics. Like a game, the fans act as players where they negotiate rules regarding the production of translations. Paradox and Logical Types in Social Enterprises, The Development Gift: The Problem of Reciprocity in the NGO World, The Cultural Relativity of the Quality of Life Concept, A capacidade de estar só: um contraponto winnicottiano ao ideal contemporâneo de autonomia absoluta, Post-colonialism, human origins and the paradox of modernity. Having delineated the often misunderstood characteristics of the Gift, the article re-examines development assistance. Examination of recent literature dealing with so-called modern human origins highlights. In twinning the attribute of reciprocity is described by authors as a core value. Reciprocity and exchange are two issues of interest in anthropology stated in Marcel Mauss' essay about gifting. According to Robert Castel, the modern ideal of freedom and autonomy was made possible by the development of social institutions that compensated for the extreme vulnerability of the individual, who, at the onset of modernity, was left on his own.