They can also occur in wet areas such as streamside woods, mangrove vegetation, flooded swamps, and marsh edges. Northern flickers are monogamous; pairs mate for life and produce two broods per season. The cover types 1989). Northern Flickers are found … Many of these names derive from attempts to imitate some of its calls. Forest area was not found to be correlated with flicker occurrences (Robbins The cavity widens at the bottom to make room for eggs and the incubating adult. Flickers breed As well as eating ants, Northern flickers exhibit a behavior known as anting. The nestlings remain safely in the nest for 24 to 27 days, where both parents feed the young. Gulf of Maine Watershed Habitat Analysis. 100(2):236-246. Northern flicker, Colaptes auratus. Tends to avoid dense unbroken forest, requiring some open ground for foraging. auratus is described here (Moore 1995). They prefer to excavate their own home, although they also reuse and repair damaged or abandoned nests. Northern flickers are diurnal birds. Northern flickers prefer open habitats near trees, including woodlands, forest edges, groves, clearings, burnt areas, agricultural lands, yards, and parks. The structural aspects of the forest are Northern flickers are found in most of North America, parts of Central America, Cuba, and the Cayman Islands. These birds can often be heard by a constant knocking as they often drum on trees or even metal objects to declare territory. Habitat: Open forests, woodlots, groves, towns, semi-open country. However, they lose their habitat and nestlings suffer from local predators such as raccoons, squirrels, snakes, and birds of prey. Of the 402 sites with birds, 395 had mapped habitat, Broomall, PA, USDA/USFS. Wilson Bull. 1986. Rudis. Inside, the cavity is bare except for a bed of wood chips for the eggs and chicks to rest on. The Northern Flicker is the most widespread woodpecker species in North America, found from the northern treeline south through the lower 48 U.S. states into Mexico, reaching into Central America as far south as northern Nicaragua. 1989. There are over 100 common names for the Northern flicker are known; these include clape, gaffer woodpecker, harry-wicket, heigh-ho, wake-up, walk-up, wick-up, yarrup, and gawker bird. Availability of nest cavities appears to limit flicker population density. The female lays 6-8 pure white eggs with a smooth surface and high gloss. history, and distribution. Northern flickers prefer to create their own nesting cavities and it takes about 1 to 2 weeks for a mated pair to build their nest. Northern flickers prefer open habitats near trees, including woodlands, forest edges, groves, clearings, burnt areas, agricultural lands, yards, and parks. Soc. The Birds of North America, No. Washington, D.C. Robbins, C.S., D.K. Chi-square was highly significant, indicating that the overall model does They tend to be fond of most forest types throughout the western mountains, including burned forests, from lowland areas like flooded swamps and marsh edges up to the tree line. Model testing: The northern flicker occurrences along Breeding Bird Survey Like most woodpeckers, Northern flickers drum on objects as a form of communication and territory defense. 103. Northern Flicker Habitat Model Nesting: A male flicker hollows out a cavity in a dead tree for nesting. to that for Breeding Bird Survey stops at which northern flickers were observed In the western United States, these birds can be found in mountain forests all the way up to tree line. Northern Flicker on The IUCN Red List site -,, The Northern flicker is a beautiful woodpecker native to most of North America and parts of Central America. Northern flickers breed from Labrador west to Alaska, Northern flickers may compete for snag trees with other species (Moore 1995). DeGraaf, R.M. Although common, this species is declining, possibly They may even forage with other birds such as sparrows and blackbirds. routes throughout the study area were used to test the habitat map. Model: May be in very open country with few trees. It is thought that the Northern flicker has the longest tongue among all North American birds. We welcome your suggestions on improving this model! Northern birds migrate to the southern parts of their range; southern birds are often permanent residents. Wings Books, Avenel, NJ. They winter Both the male and the female help with nest excavation. Reproduction, wintering. 34 pp. go to: Habitat: You will most likely find northern flickers in scattered, open woodlands, along the edges of forests and in open fields dotted with trees. They prefer forest edges and open woodlands, and are Gulf of Maine Watershed Habitat Analysis In cavities (Moore 1995). The female will lay a bunch of eggs -- 5 to 8 -- called a clutch. Use of Study Area Resources: the distribution of flicker habitat around a random set of 797 upland points Cover. Many of these names derive from attempts to imitate some of its calls. The woodpecker that doesn’t really act like a woodpecker, the Northern Flicker seems to spend more time pecking at the ground in pursuit of ants and other insects (which compose most of its diet in spring and summer) than it does at the trees. been identified. 2. used in the analysis are shown in the following table. Their abandoned nests also create habitat for other cavity nesters such as birds and squirrels. In the West you can find them in mountain forests all the way up to treeline. parks (Moore 1995, Terres 1995). Flickers are ground-foraging woodpeckers that nest in treecavities (Moore 1995). and low-growth cover for feeding, the model selects areas where forest and Wildl. 1977. found in forested wetlands, river corridors, beaver impoundments with numerous Northern flicker, Colaptes auratus, for which five sub-species have ants which make up nearly half of their diet; beetles, wasps, grasshoppers, Over 100 common names for the northern flicker are known, including yellowhammer, clape, gaffer woodpecker, harry-wicket, heigh-ho, wake-up, walk-up, wick-up, yarrup, and gawker bird. These birds have an undulating flight; the repeated cycle of a quick succession of flaps followed by a pause creates an effect comparable to a roller coaster. It is also found in Cuba. Habitat Requirements: Adult birds are brown in color with black bars on the back and wings. They use the formic acid from the ants to assist in preening, as it helps them to get rid of parasites. while 687 sites out of the 797 randomly distributed sites had habitat. The 1975 in Moore 1995). of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornithologists' Union, According to the What Bird resource, the total population size of the Northern flicker is around 16,000,000 individuals. in 1990, 1997, or 1998. Terres, J.K. 1995. Nesting habitat is most often characterized by Northern flickers are omnivores. Adkisson. Look for Northern Flickers in woodlands, forest edges, and open fields with scattered trees, as well as city parks and suburbs. for foraging (Conner and Adkisson 1977, Swallow et al. of breeding forest birds of the middle Atlantic states. Northern flickers feed by probing with their beak and sometimes may catch insects in flight. due to loss of habitats that are open and near suitable nesting cavities, Pairs usually return to the same nesting areas and males aggressively protect their territories. throughout the study area and winter in southeastern Massachusetts. New England Wildlife: habitat, natural Both the parents incubate the eggs for 11 days. mature or dead and dying trees, a high canopy, and access to open ground Dawson and B.A. The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. 468 p. USFWS There is a necklace-like black patch on the upper breast, while the lower breast and belly are beige with black spots. Gen. Tech. 1988). Monograph The Wildl. and C.S. nesting habitat. In the western mountains they occur in most forest types, including burned forests, all the way up to treeline. 491p. Wilson Bull. Species Northern flickers don't face major threats at present. The tail is dark on top, transitioning to a white rump which is conspicuous in flight. Incubation is done by both parents for about 11 to 12 days. A. Poole and F. Gill, (eds.) Special Requirements: The call of Northern flickers is a loud sustained laugh, ki ki ki ki. Habitat Look for flickers in open habitats near trees, including woodlands, edges, yards, and parks. Northern flickers are cavity nesters which typically nest in trees, but they also use posts and birdhouses if sized and situated appropriately. Foods. Dowell. snags, farms, orchards, shelter belts, hedgerows, suburban yards and urban Flickers are ground-foraging woodpeckers that nest in tree