According to the writer Helen Rappaport, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the West African and Jamaican creole "doctress", such as Cornwallis and Sarah Adams, who both died in the late 1840s, often had greater success than the European-trained doctor who practised what was then traditional medicine. She described this as "a mess-table and comfortable quarters for sick and convalescent officers", and provided succour for wounded servicemen on the battlefield, and nursed many of them back to health. There she acquired knowledge about modern European medicine which supplemented her training in traditional Caribbean medicine. [175] Sociology professor Lynn McDonald has written that "...support for Seacole has been used to attack Nightingale's reputation as a pioneer in public health and nursing. She then attempted to join the second contingent of nurses to the Crimea. Also known as: Mother Seacole . [50] As the educated daughter of a Scottish officer and a free black woman with a respectable business, Seacole would have held a high position in Jamaican society. It is understood that Mary developed the passion for tending to the sick after observing her mother. She described this as "a mess-table and comfortable quarters for sick and convalescent officers", and provided succour for wounded servicemen on the battlefield, and nursed many of them back to health. [157] An English Heritage blue plaque was erected by the Greater London Council at her residence in 157 George Street, Westminster, on 9 March 1985,[158] but it was removed in 1998 before the site was redeveloped. "[195] Many commentators do not accept the view that Seacole's accomplishments were exaggerated. The Crimean War lasted from October 1853 until 1 April 1856 and was fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the United Kingdom, France, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire. The rich paid, but she treated the poor for free. When eventually the financial affairs of the ruined Company were resolved, in March 1858, the Indian Mutiny was over. "[183] There was opposition to the siting of a statue of Mary Seacole at St Thomas' Hospital on the grounds that she had no connection with this institution, whereas Florence Nightingale did. [187] One criticism made by supporters of Nightingale of Seacole is that she was not trained at an accredited medical institution. [4] As a consequence a fund was set up, to which many prominent people donated money, and on 30 January 1857, she and Day were granted certificates discharging them from bankruptcy. In epidemics pre-Crimea, she said a comforting word to the dying and closed the eyes of the dead. It was at this time Nightingale wrote her letter to Verney insinuating that Seacole had kept a "bad house" in Crimea, and was responsible for "much drunkenness and improper conduct". "[25][37] Legally, she was classified as a mulatto, a multiracial person low on the Jamaican social ladder;[38] Robinson speculates that she may technically have been a quadroon. Jamaica was seized by the British in 1655, so by the time Mary was born, most Jamaicans worked as … Mary Seacole was a daring adventurer of the 19th century. [161][162] The portrait identified as Seacole in 2005 was used for one of ten first-class stamps showing important Britons, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the National Portrait Gallery. The NHS Leadership Academy has developed a six-month leadership course called the Mary Seacole Programme, which is designed for first time leaders in healthcare. [49], Mary Seacole spent some years in the household of an elderly woman, whom she called her "kind patroness",[26] before returning to her mother. In her autobiography, The Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands, she describes how the residents of Cruces responded: "When it became known that their "yellow doctress" had the cholera, I must do the people of Cruces the justice to say that they gave me plenty of sympathy, and would have shown their regard for me more actively, had there been any occasion. [130] Writing of his 1859 journey to the West Indies, the British novelist Anthony Trollope described visiting Mrs. Seacole's sister's hotel in Kingston in his The West Indies and the Spanish Main (Chapman & Hall, 1850). Seacole made a point of wearing brightly coloured, and highly conspicuous, clothing—often bright blue, or yellow, with ribbons in contrasting colours.