In (a) and (b), سَيَّارَة  and اِبْن are made definite by adding them to a definite noun. Here are some examples (MSA rules observed): In the first two examples, annexed nouns (i.e. The first type is called in Arabic إِضَافَة مَعْنَوِيَّة iDHaafah ma‘nawiiyah ‘meaning-bearing GC’ in which the annexed noun is affected semantically. In the latter, the type/sort of the annexed nouns (i.e. If it is dual or plural, the rule is to drop its final ن nuun in both cases. In indicating its type/sort, it is added to an indefinite noun. Similarly, in (2), the ن of لاعِبُون is dropped. Besides, it makes it definite, as in these examples: There is a lot more to be said about GC in Arabic. The second type is called إِضَافَة لَفْظِيَّة iDHaafah lafDiiyah ‘pronunciation-easing GC’ in which the annexed noun is neither defined nor typified. In many cases the two members become a fixed coined phrase, the idafah being used as the equivalent of a compound noun used in some Indo-European languages such as English. The purpose of this annexation is to delimit the added noun or to indicate its type. qism and kitaab) are defined/delimited by adding them to the definite nouns (al-aHya’a and john). Arab grammarians use the term /?iDaafah/ ‘annexation’ to describe the process of adding a noun to another in a genitive construction. The iḍāfah may indicate the material something is made of: خَاتَمُ خَشَبٍ khātamu khashabin "a wooden ring, ring made of wood". These types of … In terms of parsing and final diacritics assignment (i.e. كَسْرَة kasrah in the case of singular nouns (and gets ين in the case of dual and plural nouns). ‘this is a bee honey.’, (d)   قَرَأْتُ كَتَابَ تَارِيْخٍ. ‘they went to a man of religion.’, (h)   هُمْ طَالِبُو عِلْمٍ. ‘Saleem’s car is new.’, (b)   اِبْنُ عَلِي يَدْرِسُ الفِيْزِيَاء., Using Social Media to Learn a Language, Advanced English learners looking to sharpen listening and reading comprehension skills, this course is for you!……, Create custom language learning activities for listening, speaking, reading, and writing in a couple of clicks. So is the case with (3) and (4), that is فِيْلْمَيْن becomes فِيْلْمَي and مُعَلِّمُون becomes مُعَلِّمُو. Iḍāfah (إِضَافَة) is the Arabic grammatical construct case, mostly used to indicate possession. I am a language teacher. An idafah construction is definite if the second noun is definite, by having the article or being the proper name of a place or person. The false genitive construction ٤) أَلْإِضَافَةُ غَيْرُ الْحَقِيقِيَّةِ Adjectives and participles are often used as أَلْمُضَافُ, whereas أَلْمُضَافُ إِلَيْهِ is a definite noun. I am from Yemen. Both of these situations occur very often in the language. It can be considered indefinite or definite only as a whole. Ahmad ate apples. This is to be a covered for a more advanced level in a future post. First, a noun or adjective following a preposition will always be in the genitive. Depending on how the annexed noun المُضَاف is affected, GC is divided into two types: 1) GC that affects the meaning and 2) GC that affects the pronunciation. The construction is typically equivalent to the English construction "(noun) of (noun)". In (1), the ن of لاعِبَان is dropped. In (e), (f), and (g), the two nouns are underlyingly لاعِبٍ كُرَةٍ, عَارِضَةٌ أَزْيَاءٍ, and رَجُلٍ دِيْنٍ, but, due to GC, the first noun gets a single corresponding diacritical mark. mudarris and zayt) is indicated by adding them to the indefinite nouns (lughah and zaytuun). The man went to the home If an adjective modifies the first noun, it appears at the end of the iḍāfah. This article is about the construction in Arabic. more than one word) structure can be used as a faa‘il فَاعِل ‘subject’ or a maf‘uul مَفْعُول ‘object’ of the sentence in lieu of a single word. First comes the noun being possessed (المضاف), then comes the noun referring to the owner (المضاف اليه). The second part is always assigned a genitive case, i.e. ‘Ali’s son studies physics.’, (c)   هَذَا عَسَلُ نَحْلٍ. It is a construction of two nouns (or more, in the case of complex constructions, in which you have multiple GSs inside each other, but for now let’s stick to the simple GS), in which one noun is attributed / annexed to the another. The second noun will come after and depend on the the first noun, so that the second noun is the dependent and the first noun is the head. 16 ﴾مَنْ لَا يَرْحَمُ لَا يُرْحَمُ﴿ ١٦ 4. Genitive Construction (GC), known as iDHaafah إِضَافَة, is usually encountered at the early stages of learning Arabic. Idāfa basically entails putting one noun after another: the second noun specifies more precisely the nature of the first noun. The genitive case is used for the second noun in a genitive construction and for the object of a preposition. It can be in any case: this is determined by the grammatical role of the first term in the sentence where it occurs. Arabic. In forms of Arabic which mark grammatical case, this second noun must be in the genitive case. is modified by) the second term, referred to as, When using a pronunciation that generally omits cases (. ‘I read a history book.’, (e)   يُرِيْدُ أَنْ يَكُوْنَ لاعِبَ كُرَةٍ. ‘he wants to be a football player.’, (f)   هَيَ عَارِضَةُ أَزْيَاءٍ. A noun. If both terms in the idāfa are modified, the adjective modifying the last term is set closest to the idāfa, and the adjective modifying the first term is set further away. In (c) and (d), the type of عَسَل and كِتَاب is indicated by adding it to another (indefinite) noun. [6] In the case of words for containers, the iḍāfah may express what is contained: فِنْجَانُ قَهْوَةٍ finjānu qahwatin "a cup of coffee". When the annexed noun, i.e, the مُضَاف, is added to a pronoun, the corresponding object affix of the pronoun is appended to the end of the annexed noun forming a single word. Marhaban! Thank you! 10 Most Common Swear Words and Expressions in Arabic, 10 Most Common Expressions About Love in Arabic, “It seems that I’ve loved you” – Levantine Arabic song, Preparations for a 2nd lockdown in England (2), Arabic Vocabulary Surrounding Mobile Phones. Indefinite possessed nouns are also expressed via a preposition. It is marked as definite (with the definitive article) or indefinite (with nunation, in those varieties of Arabic that use it), and can take a possessive pronoun suffix. The iḍāfa (إضافَة) construction of traditional Arabic grammar is a possessive construction (also known as a genitive construction) which relates two nouns. Create custom lessons in any language, at any level in just 1-2 hours. Genitive is also used after prepositions. The construction is indefinite if it the second noun is indefinite. Genitive Construction /ĵārrun wa Maĵrūrun/ خَرَجَ يَاسِرٌ مِنَ الْمَدْرَسَةِ. The genitive construct In Arabic, two nouns can be placed one after the other in what is called a genitive construct (الإضافة) to indicate possession. That is, it becomes definite, as in examples (a) and (b) or its type/sort is indicated, as in examples (c) and (d). (a)   سَيَّارَةُ سَلِيْمٍ جَدِيْدَةٌ. Similarly, in (h) and (i), the nouns are underlyingly طَالِبُون عِلْمٍ and طَالبَان هَنْدَسَةٍ, but, due to the GC, the ن is dropped, hence the pronunciation is eased. The range of relationships between the first and second elements of the idafah construction is very varied, though usually consists of some relationship of possession or belonging. I teach English and Arabic. I will focus on Modern Standard Arabic. Thus بَيْتُ ٱلطَّلَبَةِ baytu al-ṭalabati can mean "house of the (certain, known) students", but is also the normal term for "the student hostel". Genitive Construction (GC), known as iDHaafah إِضَافَة, is usually encountered at the early stages of learning Arabic. What if the مُضَاف  muDHaaf ‘the annexed’ is dual or plural? An adjective modifying the first noun appears at the end of the iḍāfah and agrees with the noun it describes in number, gender, case, and definiteness (the latter of which is determined by the last noun of the iḍāfah).[12]. For example: سَرْقةُ جَوَازِ سَفَرِ أِحَدِ اللَاعِبِينَ sarqatu jawāzi safari ’aḥadi l-laa‘ibīna "the theft of the passport [literally "license of journey"] of one of the athletes".[9]. It is a very widespread way of forming possessive constructions in Arabic,[1] and is typical of a Semitic language. To learn more, you can also visit my website Ibnulyemen Arabic or my facebook page. The definiteness or indefiniteness of the second term determines the definiteness of the entire, This page was last edited on 28 September 2020, at 16:43. ذَهَبَ الرَّجُلُ إِلَى الْبَيْتِ. Iḍāfah (إِضَافَة) is an Arabic grammatical structure, mostly used to indicate possession. case assignment), the first part is normally parsed (assigned a final diacritical mark) according to its position in the sentence, that is it could be a subject, an object, a topic, a predicate, or an object of a preposition. In this blog, I will be leading you through Arabic language learning in a sequential fashion.