. We honor their shared commitment to the belief that the oppressed are the necessary agents of their own learning, art, struggle, and emancipation. The Cop in the Head: Three Hypotheses. Because of the increased visibility brought about by his winning a seat, he was able to obtain funding to hold an international festival for the first time in Brazil in July, 1993. Epic Theatre and Theatre of the Oppressed: Brecht and, Modestly, [Boal] Jorge Louraço Figueira. But the military coups in Brazil during the 1960’s looked upon all such activity as a threat. Today especially we remember with gratitude and profound respect Augusto Boal, who died ten years ago on May 2, 2009, and Paulo Freire, who died on the same date 22 years ago, on May 2, 1997. One of his central projects, in addition to completing his book The Aesthetics of the Oppressed, was organizing a Gathering of Jokers in Rio for the summer of 2009. New York: Routledge Press, Fall 1998. Instead of being merely spectators, Boal coined a new phrase, and proposed that audience members be ‘spect-actors’ (Green, 2001). Invisible theatre. Because of Boal’s work, he drew attention as a cultural activist. Augusto Boal’s final visit to North America occurred in May 2008 in Omaha, NE. Categories du theatre populaire. 3:1, 1995. Paterson, Douglas L. “A Role to Play for the Theatre of the Oppressed.” in: The Drama Review. Typical of Boal, he is not interested in the central story but in the characters who are usually cut from the play, and thus imagined a text of the marginal characters, the ones without much power. He says it might be similar to the national dish of Brazil which is based on a stew made by slaves of the leavings from the masters table. The Eighth such Festival was called the Ripple Effect sponsored by Mixed Company Theatre in Toronto, Canada, and was held from May 29 to June 8, 1997. —-. In the fall of 1992, Boal ran as an at-large candidate for the position of Vereador of Rio, a position similar to a City Council seat in the United States. In so doing, according to Boal, they remained viewers and “reactors” to the action before them. He has established a major Center for the Theatre of the Oppressed there (CTO – Rio) and has formed over a dozen companies which develop community-based performances. Luzuriaga, Gerado. Drawing inspiration from Freire, Brecht, and Stanislavski, Augusto Boal developed the Theater of the Oppressed in practice throughout his career, starting in the ’50s in Brazil and later in Argentina, Peru, Ecuador and France while in exile from the military dictatorship. Iná Camargo Costa. New York, Routledge Press: 1994. 1980, 83-90. —-. Augusto Boal was a giant in so many ways: theatre director, scholar, teacher; pedagogy colleague of Paulo Freire; political representative and statesman in Rio de Janeiro and Brazil; international speaker and teacher; Nobel Peace Prize nominee; and the visionary who conceived and patiently developed one of the most revolutionary cultural and artistic practices of the last millennia, the Theatre of the Oppressed. New York:  Routledge Press, 2001. Hopefully there are hundreds and even thousands of people carrying out this liberatory approach to community animation. Fall 1990, 35-42. In the Theatre of the Oppressed, the audience becomes active, such that as "spect-actors" the… Chamberlain, Franc, eds. Boal & Freire. A paper I wrote for "Introduction to Boal and Theatre of the Oppressed", October 10, 2010 at New York University “At the point of encounter there are neither utter ignoramuses nor perfect sages; there are only people who are attempting, together, to learn more than they now know.”—Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, “We should know the world we live in, the better to change it. El teatro popular. Il y a plusieurs manieres de faire du theatre populaire: je les prefere toutes. Bisset, Judith I. “Activism, Therapy, or Nostalgia? Douglas Estevam. I have lost my last father. It is serendipitous and fortunate that during this 14th Annual PTO Conference arrangements were made for extensive professional video taping of the Legislative Theatre workshop, the Legislative Session, conference events featuring Boal, and some of the Rainbow into Forum post-conference workshop. In March Augusto was in France, as he often was, working and writing. “Working Without Boal: Digressions and Developments in the Theatre of the Oppressed.” in: Contemporary Theatre Review: an International Journal. We send our sympathies to his wife, Cecelia, his son, Julian, with whom so many of us have worked, his son Fabian, the rest of his family, the members of CTO-Rio, and his world of friends and co-workers. He began inviting audience members with suggestions for change onto the stage to demonstrate their ideas. Julian Boal co-jokered the session with Augusto, and the event sparkled with vigorous discussion and debate. Theory and Practice of the ‘Theatre of the Oppressed.’ in: Tot lering en vermaak: 9 manieren voor 10 jaar vormingstheater / red. —-. in: Travail theatral (1975) 18/19, 161-171. Because of their several necessary flights for personal and family safety during the 1960’s – 1980’s, this co-appearance was the first time Augusto Boal and Paulo Freire shared a common public stage. Boal also concluded the Conference with an image exercise which amounted to a fascinating visual “critique” of the Conference itself. Though he lost his bid for re-election in the fall of 1996, while in office, Vereador Boal developed a Forum type of theatre — which he called Legislative Theatre — to work at the neighborhood level to identify the key problems in the city. “Theatrical Utopia.” in: New Statesmen & Society. Agitprop and Theatre of the Oppressed. A grieving and honoring ritual was organized by Hector Aristizabal for late in the evening on Wednesday, May 20. While in Paris, Boal continued for a dozen years to teach his revolutionary approach to theatre, establishing several Centers for the Theatre of the Oppressed. Antwerpen: Soethoudt. Boal was influenced by the work of the educator and theorist Paulo Freire. As the featured guest for the first PTO Conference in Omaha in 1995, Augusto attended, led workshops, and spoke at all but three of our conferences through last year’s gathering in 2008, again in Omaha. Still the 2009 Conference was held in Minneapolis/St. Several of the pieces developed kicked off the Conference with much interaction, reflection, action, and discussion from the conference attendees. This large amount of tape has been collected in a disc, available through PTO and on this website, showing significant elements of each Conference event. in: Teatro popular y cambio social en America Latina: panorama de una experiencia / ed. in: Adult Education and Development (1979), 12, 29-31. In 1995 Boal keynoted the Pedagogy of the Oppressed Conference sponsored by the University of Nebraska at Omaha and presented numerous community and educational workshops demonstrating his theatrical approaches. The Theater of the Oppressed constitutes an approach to dramaturgy developed by another Brazilian, Augusto Boal, and is deeply inspired by the work of Paulo Freire.