Sociologists, however, tend to be more interested in the influences of governmental power on society and in how social conflicts arise from the distribution of power. Indeed, the concept of power can have decidedly negative connotations, and the term itself is difficult to define. Both men organized nonviolent protests to combat corruption and injustice and succeeded in inspiring major reform. Reduced cost—The standardised procedure and method helps in considerably reduction of office cost. Charismatic leaders usually emerge in times of crisis and offer innovative or radical solutions. For the most part, political scientists focus on studying how power is distributed in different types of political systems. Then write a paragraph describing the personal qualities that led to this person’s influence, considering the society in which he or she emerged. Pittacus (c. 640–568 B.C.E.) Because so few women have held dynamic positions of leadership throughout history, the list of charismatic female leaders is comparatively short. Such a driver most likely assumes that the police officer behind him serves as a legitimate source of authority and has the right to pull him over. Charismatic leaders are among the most fascinating figures in history. In this form of authority, all officials are personal favorites appointed by the ruler. 2. Power affects more than personal relationships; it shapes larger dynamics like social groups, professional organizations, and governments. Explain why leaders as divergent as Hitler and Jesus Christ are both categorized as charismatic authorities. For centuries, philosophers, politicians, and social scientists have explored and commented on the nature of power. In other words, power is necessary but not sufficient for authority. Sociologists, however, tend to be more interested in the influences of governmental power on society and in how social conflicts arise from the distribution of power. 2014. In this type of authority, power is vested in a particular rationale, system, or ideology and not necessarily in the person who implements the specifics of that doctrine. Power is an entity’s or individual’s ability to control or direct others, while authority is influence that is predicated on perceived legitimacy. He is pictured here with fascist Benito Mussolini of Italy. Then write a paragraph describing the personal qualities that led to this person’s influence, considering the society in which he or she emerged. Many scholars adopt the definition developed by German sociologist Max Weber, who said that power is the ability to exercise one’s will over others (Weber 1922). Many historians consider figures such as Joan of Arc, Margaret Thatcher, and Mother Teresa to be charismatic leaders. In the United States, the Kennedy family, which has produced many prominent politicians, exemplifies this model. To rule through power alone involves such a great expenditure of coercive resources as to be unsustainable. One example of the former is the authoritarian use of power. The parent has authority over the child until the child reaches adulthood. For instance, a person who sees the flashing red and blue lights of a police car in his rearview mirror usually pulls to the side of the road without hesitation. We are generally aware of what authority figures have power to request, and are also aware when authority figures overstep their position. Notice that in these examples, the users of power were the citizens rather than the governments. In other words, power is necessary but not sufficient for authority. “Weberian Patrimonialism and Imperial Chinese History.” Theory and Society 27(1):83–102. (Photo courtesy of U.S. National Archives and Records Administration). Figure 2. Berkeley: University of California Press. Legitimate authority Power whose use is considered just and appropriate by those over whom the power is exercised. A power of attorney may even be used for litigation purposes. Consequently, power is necessary for authority, but it is possible to have power without authority. Based on this work, Weber developed a classification system for authority. Further, they are enforced by a government that monopolizes their enactment and the legitimate use of physical force. Since authority is related with position in an organization, it has limited scope and is confined to organizational structure whereas power is linked with an individual and transcends boundaries. (Photo courtesy of cjb22/flickr). Totalitarianism and military dictatorship can also be considered autocratic government forms but only if it is controlled by one person or ruler who has the supreme power. Pittacus (c. 640–568 B.C.E.) Hitler’s rise to power in the postwar economic depression of Germany is an example. Max Weber studied power and authority, differentiating between the two concepts and formulating a system for classifying types of authority. New York: Oxford University Press. U.S. intervention in Libya and Syria is controversial, and it arouses debate about the role of the United States in world affairs, as well as the practical need for, and outcome of, military action in the Middle East. Similarly, members of dominant racial groups or upper-class families also win respect more readily. Legitimate power stems from an authority’s legitimate right to require and demand compliance. Weber, Max. a type of authority wherein military and administrative factions enforce the power of the master power the ability to exercise one’s will over others rational-legal authority power that is legitimized by rules, regulations, and laws traditional authority power legitimized on the basis of long-standing customs Power affects more than personal relationships; it shapes larger dynamics like social groups, professional organizations, and governments.